Diagnostic Imaging of the Liver, Biliary Tract and Pancreas: Data Analysis and Diagnostic Procedures
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Liver MRCP | Perspectum Diagnostics
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Papadakis M. Maxine A. Jaundice icterus results from the accumulation of bilirubin—a product of heme metabolism—in body tissues eFigure 16—1. Total serum bilirubin is normally 0. Mean levels are higher in men than women, higher in whites and Hispanics than blacks, and correlate with an increased risk of symptomatic gallstone disease and inversely with the risk of stroke, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, and mortality, presumably because of an antioxidant effect. Color Atlas of Liver Disease. Mosby, Jaundice may be caused by predominantly unconjugated or conjugated bilirubin in the serum Table 16—1.
Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia may result from overproduction of bilirubin because of hemolysis; impaired hepatic uptake of bilirubin due to certain drugs; or impaired conjugation of bilirubin by glucuronide, as in Gilbert syndrome, due to mild decreases in uridine diphosphate UDP glucuronyl transferase, or Crigler-Najjar syndrome, caused by moderate decreases or absence of UDP glucuronyl transferase. Predominantly conjugated hyperbilirubinemia may result from impaired excretion of bilirubin from the liver due to hepatocellular disease, drugs, sepsis, or hereditary hepatocanalicular transport defects such as Dubin-Johnson syndrome, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis syndromes, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy or from extrahepatic biliary obstruction.
Features of some hyperbilirubinemic syndromes are summarized in Table 16—2.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research
Mediators of pruritus due to cholestasis have been identified to be lysophosphatidic acid and autotaxin, the enzyme that forms lysophosphatidic acid. Increased bilirubin production eg, hemolytic anemias, hemolytic reactions, hematoma, pulmonary infarction. Impaired bilirubin uptake and storage eg, posthepatitis hyperbilirubinemia, Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, drug reactions.
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- Diagnostic Imaging of the Liver Biliary Tract and Pancreas.
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Minimally invasive digital technology: A new edge tool for the diagnosis and treatment of hepatolithiasis. Digit Med ; Establishment and value of three-dimensional visualization diagnosis platform in the treatment of hepatolithiasis. Chin J Pract Surg ; Fang CH, Xiang N.
Value of digital minimally invasive technology in diagnosis and treatment of hepatolithiasis. Xiang N, Fang C. Application of hepatic segment resection combined with rigid choledochoscope in the treatment of complex hepatolithiasis guided by three-dimensional visualization technology. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; Laparoscopic versus open left hemihepatectomy for hepatolithiasis. Expert consensus on laparoscopic treatment of hepatolithiasis edition. Chin J Dig Surg ; Applied rigid choledochoscope and pneumatic lithotripsy in targeting treatment of hepatolithiasis guided by three-dimensional visualization technology.
Comparison between percutaneous transhepatic rigid cholangioscopic lithotripsy and conventional percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic surgery for hepatolithiasis treatment. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech ; Using percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotripsy for intrahepatic calculus in hostile abdomen. Surgeon ; Surgical treatments for hepatolithiasis complicated with biliary cirrhosis and portal hypertension Electronic Edition.
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