Hernan Cortes (Great Explorers)
We strive for accuracy and fairness. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Sign up for the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. Hernando de Soto was a Spanish explorer and conquistador who participated in the conquests of Central America and Peru and discovered the Mississippi River.
America was named after Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine navigator and explorer who played a prominent role in exploring the New World. Francisco Franco led a successful military rebellion to overthrow Spain's democratic republic in the Spanish Civil War, subsequently establishing an often brutal dictatorship that defined the country for decades.
During his governorship, he vainly sought the mythical riches of North America. He is best known for his explorations of the coast of California from Oxford University Press; Townsend, Camilla Austin: University of Texas Press Benedict Warren. Washington DC: Library of Congress Lesley Byrd Simpson. Berkeley: University of California Press , p. New York: Grossman Publishers, , p. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.
Hernán Cortés: Conqueror of the Aztecs | Live Science
Austin: University of Texas Press, , pp. Early Silver Mining in New Spain, — Bakewell, Peter ed. Mines of Silver and Gold in the Americas. Aldershot: Variorum, Ashgate Publishing Limited. Archived from the original on 8 August The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lons, Dirck Eversen; Vinckeboons, David eds. World Digital Library. Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 August Letras Libres.
Editorial Vuelta. Archived from the original on 20 July Retrieved 23 July Retrieved 19 February Famous Hispanics. Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved 12 March Catholic Encyclopedia. Letters — available as Letters from Mexico translated by Anthony Pagden. Yale University Press, Available online in Spanish from an edition. Mexico Nahuatl-Spanish trans. Expanded and updated ed.
Who Was Hernán Cortés?
Beacon Press. Berkeley: University of California Press Hispania Victrix; First and Second Parts of the General History of the Indies, with the whole discovery and notable things that have happened since they were acquired until the year , with the conquest of Mexico and New Spain University of California Press, Prescott, William H. Boruchoff, David A. Brooks, Francis J. Chamberlain, Robert S. Cline, Howard F. Library of Congress, Robert Moorman. Elliott, J.
Fifth Series Frankl, Victor. Himmerich y Valencia, Robert. New York: Franklin Watts, Inc. Konetzke, Richard. Madrid Levy, Buddy. Mexico MacNutt, F. New York and London Madariaga, Salvador de. Marks, Richard Lee. Alfred A. Knopf, Mathes, W. Michael, ed. The Conquistador in California: Dawson's Book Shop, Maura, Juan Francisco.
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Santiago de Chile Miller, Robert Ryal. Petrov, Lisa. The aged Aguilar also became sick and appointed Alonso de Estrada governor, who was confirmed in his functions by a royal decree in August Estrada sent Diego de Figueroa to the south. De Figueroa raided graveyards and extorted contributions, meeting his end when the ship carrying these treasures sank. Denying he had held back on gold due the crown, he showed that he had contributed more than the quinto one-fifth required. He was received by Charles with every distinction, and decorated with the order of Santiago.
The noble title and senorial estate of the Marquesado was passed down to his descendants until Although confirmed in his land holdings and vassals, he was not reinstated as governor and was never again given any important office in the administration of New Spain.
During his travel to Spain, his property was mismanaged by abusive colonial administrators. He sided with local natives in a lawsuit. The natives documented the abuses in the Huexotzinco Codex. He was accused of murdering his first wife. The proceedings of the investigation were kept secret. Had the Government declared him innocent, it would have greatly increased his popularity. Had it declared him a criminal, a crisis would have been precipitated by the accused and his party. Silence was the only safe policy, but that silence is suggestive that grave danger was feared from his influence.
There he concentrated on the building of his palace and on Pacific exploration. Cortes acquired several silver mines in Zumpango del Rio in By the early s, he owned 20 silver mines in Sultepec , 12 in Taxco , and 3 in Zacualpan. Earlier, Cortes had claimed the silver in the Tamazula area.
On his return he was utterly neglected, and could scarcely obtain an audience. On one occasion he forced his way through a crowd that surrounded the emperor's carriage, and mounted on the footstep. The emperor, astounded at such audacity, demanded of him who he was. Having spent a great deal of his own money to finance expeditions, he was now heavily in debt.
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In February he made a claim on the royal treasury, but was ignored for the next three years. Disgusted, he decided to return to Mexico in When he reached Seville, he was stricken with dysentery. He died in Castilleja de la Cuesta , Seville province, on December 2, , from a case of pleurisy at the age of He left his many mestizo and white children well cared for in his will, along with every one of their mothers. He requested in his will that his remains eventually be buried in Mexico.
After his death, his body was moved more than eight times for several reasons. Three years later due to the space being required by the duke, his body was moved to the altar of Santa Catarina in the same church. So in , his body was sent to New Spain and buried in the church of San Francisco de Texcoco, where his mother and one of his sisters were buried. This was delayed for nine years, while his body stayed in the main room of the palace of the viceroy.
Eventually it was moved to the Sagrario of Franciscan church, where it stayed for 87 years. In , it was moved to another place in the same church.
There was a public ceremony and all the churches in the city rang their bells. In , his bones were moved to another place in the same building. The remains were authenticated by INAH. Probably the best source is his letters to the king which he wrote during the campaign in Mexico, but they are written with the specific purpose of putting his efforts in a favourable light and so must be read critically.
In the years following the conquest more critical accounts of the Spanish arrival in Mexico were written. The muralist Diego Rivera painted several representation of him but the most famous, depicts him as a powerful and ominous figure along with Malinche in a mural in the National Palace in Mexico City. The hotel was closed to make a commercial center, and the statue was put out of public display by Costco the builder of the commercial center.
His first letter was considered lost, and the one from the municipality of Veracruz has to take its place. The Segunda Carta de Relacion , bearing the date of October 30, , appeared in print at Seville in The third letter , dated May 15, , appeared at Seville in The fourth, October 20, , was printed at Toledo in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Spanish conquistador. See also: Spanish naming customs. Main article: Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Algiers expedition Spain portal Mexico portal Biography portal. The Epic of Latin America. Retrieved Mexico and the Spanish Conquest. Longman Group UK Limited, , pp. September Newbury: New World City. Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest.
Oxford University Press; Townsend, Camilla Austin: University of Texas Press Benedict Warren.